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拳艺研习处

a-太极十要说的释义

1、虚领顶劲
领:提起,虚领则轻轻向上一提,是领其全身精神,令其全身不偏不倚,不领则气塌,领过则气皆在上,足底不稳,头重脚轻。
顶劲在头顶百会穴,要意识上顶百会穴,若有意若无意。打拳全是顶劲,顶劲领好,全身精神为之一振,打拳关键自始自终顶劲决不可失,一失顶劲,且无精神,故必须领起顶劲,为周身纲领 
劲往上领,而气往下沉入腹部(丹田),两者综合起来,在意识上有着对拉的意识,使身体有放长的感觉。

2、含胸拔背
要求胸部既不腆出,也不凹进,使背脊保持最佳姿势,就象力学上的杠杆是不允许有弯曲的,拔--对拉开的意思。
拔背--似脊椎一节一节对拉开之意,两肩要灵活,但不可低头。从武功说,脊椎拔长,则有促劲,易于发力。
注意:不可误认为驼背为拔背,使前胸失去支柱作用,同样失去背部拔长后产生的技击作用,同时也有害健康。

3、身体中正(上下相随)
尾闾往里微微一收,使身体上下百会、会阴、涌泉三穴成一线,内气容易发动,在技击和养生方面均有很强的作用。同时提肛、敛胯,臀部前收,尾骨向前意想托起丹田(小腹)。谓之尾闾中正,即身体中正,这也是太极拳的练功要决之一。

4、形松意紧(用意不用力)
在练拳时要求全身放松,从人体外部观看,全身肌肉并未用力。但事实上意念要紧随每一个动作,在体现形松意紧时,必须同时强调“松”和“紧”的重要性,但绝大部分人练太极者是松有余而紧不足,或者紧有余而松不足。

5、沉肩垂肘
沉肩主要是意识将肩部下塌,意念要使肩与肘和腰三者接牢,才能使臂生根。同时,由于垂肘,使肘与肩部之间达到放长。当手臂进行螺旋式运动时,就是以垂肘作中心的。垂肘和坐腕又可以使肘与腕之间放长,因此,垂肘和坐腕是整个手臂的放长关键。坐腕有利于劲(气)送到手指,垂肘即是肘尖要有下垂之意。 

6、松胯松腰
腰松以及胯松,体内内气才易畅通,胯不收不松,腹部和臀部自然会向外凸,影响身体中正。松胯松腰转换才能灵活。

7、舌抵上颚
练拳时气沉丹田,呼吸深长细匀,头脑保持清醒,同时必须舌尖微微轻抵上颚,津液会逐渐增多,此称为“金津玉液”,津液中含有大量人体必需的消化酶、溶菌酶,练功中舌抵上颚,产生大量津液,有助于身体健康,同时,不易产生口干。

8、松、固、凝
学练太极必须做到体要松、气要固、神要凝。
(1)体要松:就是身体肌肉不用力,初学太极,肌肉非松不可,松是学习太极第一步功夫,身体血脉要流通,肌肉要放松,不可作勉强用力,因力是硬的,谓拙力,拙力虽大,是一部分力。不用力并要求松、柔,松、柔可产生沉劲。沉劲是劲下沉到足底,使身体整体力量集中。
(2)气要固:固就是不散漫,体松而气不散漫,始能动作不松散,周身才能一体。固是学太极第二步功夫,如何能使气固,即把气沉在丹田(腹部),不浮在上面,但注意气沉与深呼吸有所不同。胸虚腹实则气固,身体便有重心在下感觉,无论手足如何动作,气固则身自稳。此太极第二步功夫。
(3)神要凝: 凝就是内外相合。所谓内外相合,肩与胯合,肘与膝合,手与足合,谓外三合。心与意合,意与气合,气与力合,谓内三合。凝,定能体松气固,如内外不相合,决不能心之所到,即身之所到。唯内外相合,然心身一气,凝是太极拳第三步功夫。
做到以上三点,练拳时才能绵绵不断,周而复始。

9、虚实分清
虚:非全然无力,内中要有腾挪,即预动之势而未动,谓之腾挪。
实:非全然占煞,内中要贯注精神,即有上提之意。切记两足任何时候都不要全然占煞,也应该分清虚实。旋转轻灵。

10、摺叠(运动要领)
有上即有下,有前即有后,有左即有右,如意要向上,即寓意要向下,意要向下即寓意要向上,前后左右,皆是如此。

b-Key Points to the Practice of Tai Chi 24-Form-Style Simplified
To start:
Relax the whole body, keep the back neck up-right, rid of all thoughts, and keep your mind focused, breath naturally.
When bending your knees and down-suppressing your palms, keep your upper body up-right, without any leaning forward or backward, make sure your hands coordinate with the up-and-down movement of your arms and the stretch-and-bend movement of your legs, together with coordinated that is breathing thin-and-long (or deep).

Wild-Horse-Hair-Stroking:
Be sure the steps are light, body gravity remains on hind foot (leg), and slow in moving it forward to the fore leg. Palm-divides and bow-steps are to finish simultaneously. Chest should be in slightly-in-ward-bend gesture, arms form and keep circular shape.
Knee Hold-ups and Foot Twists:
The movement of holding hand and pushing palm should coordinate with the shift of your body gravity, make sure your up body not leaning forward, elbow slightly bends, in the process of your right hand bypassing your ear and continue to push out (forward), make sure the wrist changes gradually from straight gesture to sitting gesture, and from palm and finger forward pointing to, after passing by ear, the palm-heel forward pushing.
Peacock-Tail-Stroking:
Be sure not to hurry in arm movement as you step forward, but to coordinate with the shift of your body gravity, ensuring the simultaneity, while left arm bends naturally and right arm slightly props-out.

Single Whip:
Make sure the upper body left turn happens at the same time as the body gravity shifts left.
High Probing Horse
Before the following-up-step steps out, the body gravity should first start slightly to shift to the left leg, but do not raise your gravity, rather keep it on your left leg, so that your following-up-step is steady and firm.

Right-Foot-Propping:
While both arms down-ward-drawing the circle, be sure your body does not lean forward, and be slow in ending your leg movement. Same is with your left foot.
Left-Down-Gesture and Standing:
When ???, make sure left leg does not stretch too far, and ensure the gravity is on your right leg while left foot inward-twists. The right is the same.

Left-and-Right Shuttling:
The speed of right hand getting-on-the rack and left hand forward-pushing happens at the same time as you shift your body gravity forward; make sure your hands and your feet arrive at the same time. Pay attention to left arm not to be too straight, rather slightly bend.

Sea-Bed-Needle:
Take heed when you are doing palm-crossing that your upper body do not lean forward, and you should avoid head-down-ward-facing and chest outward pushing.
Sealed-and-Closed:
When sitting back your gravity, your palm faces upward.

Crossed-Hands:
Gravity-shift should be level, without ups-and-downs, tip of both of your toes faces forward, as you stretch and slightly kick your right leg, the gravity shits to the left leg. The width of the opening of your feet should be the same as that from one of your shoulder to the other. Hands form a cross with palm facing you face.

c-杨健候先生太极推手精论
打手者,研究懂劲也。先师曰:“由着熟而渐悟懂劲,由懂劲而阶及神明。”旨在言乎!夫究宜如何始能着熟,宜如何始悟懂劲,宜如何阶及神明。

此本章之所宜急急研究者也。夫太极拳之各势既已练习,则当首先注意姿势是否正确,动作能否自然,待其既正确且自然矣,然后进而练习应用。应用既皆纯熟,斯可謂着熟矣。虽然此不过彼往

我来之一势一用而已耳。若彼连用数法或因我之着而变化斯时也,则如之何于是手懂劲尚焉。
夫懂劲者,因己之不利处,推及彼之不利处也。方我之欲击敌也,心中必先具一念,然后始击之也。反是彼能无此一念乎!虽智愚贤不肖异等,而其先具之一念,未尝异也。故彼念既同我念一起,真伪虚实难测异常,苟无一定之主宰,则必至于张惶失措,方恐应敌之不暇,尚何希其致胜哉!虽然当击彼之念既起,则当存心彼我着法孰速欲击之目的。孰当彼未击我身也,可否引其落空,或我之动作是否能动于彼先。待既击至我身也,宜如何变其力之方向,使落不及我身,或能因彼之力而使其力折回而还彼身。此等存心,究宜如何始能得之,盖因我之某处惧彼之击也,彼之某处亦惧我之击,此明显之理也。然而,避我之怕击处,击彼之怕击处,则彼欲胜岂可得也。孙子曰:“知己知彼,百战百胜。”此之谓也。方此时也,可谓懂劲也矣。

懂劲后,愈练愈精,渐至舍己从人,因敌变化,不思而得,从容中道,非达于神明矣乎!学者果能尽心研究之,则出奇入妙,将在于是也,是为论。

太极拳打手,亦名推手、靠手。得力于掤、捋、挤、按、采、挒、肘、靠八个字。而其八字所以练其身之圆活,使二人粘连粘随,周而复始,浑天球斡旋不已。将此一身练为浑圆之体,随曲就伸,无不如意,一举一动无不轻灵。敌如搏我则逆来顺应,变化无穷。故练习太极拳者至相当程度时,又须进而练习推手也。练习推手须择合宜之俦侣互相研习,始可获益。至于推手方法,分单推手、双推手、合步推手、顺步推手、定步推手、活步推手、大捋推手、缠步推手。虽然方法不同,而手法则不外乎掤、捋、挤、按、采、挒、肘、靠各法。之外也,如外取敌人,用掤、按、挤、靠、肘,败势。取敌即使捋采挒,敌掤我捋,敌捋我靠,敌挤我捋,敌按我掤,化其力,或以捋之可也。

d太极拳论 王宗岳
太极者,无极而生,阴阳之母也。动之则分,静之则合。无过不及,随曲就伸。人刚我柔谓之走,我顺人背谓之粘。动急则急应,动缓则缓随。虽变化万端,而理为一贯。由招熟而渐悟懂劲,由懂劲而阶及神明。然非用力日久,不能豁然贯通焉。虚灵顶劲,气沉丹田。不偏不倚,忽隐忽现。左重则左虚,右重则右杳。仰之则弥高,府之则弥深,进之则愈长,退之则愈促。一羽不能加,蝇虫不能落,人不知我,我独知人。英雄所向无敌,盖皆由此而及也。斯技旁门甚多,虽势有区别,概不外,壮欺弱,慢让快耳。有力打无力,手慢让手快,是皆先天自然之能,非关学力而有为也。察四两拨千斤之句,显非力胜;观耄耋御众之形,快何能为。立如秤准,活如车轮,偏沉则随,双重则滞。每见数年纯功,不能运化者,率皆自为人制,双重之病未悟而。欲避此病,须知阴阳;粘即是走,走即是粘,阳不离阴,阴不离阳;阴阳相济,方为懂劲。懂劲后,愈练愈精,默识揣摩,渐至从心所欲。本是舍己从人,多误舍近求远。所谓差之毫厘,谬之千里。学者不可不详辨焉。是为论。

e-拳论 张三丰
一举动中周身俱要轻灵,尤须贯串,气宜鼓荡、神宜内敛,无使有缺陷处、无使有凸凹处、无使有断续处,其根在脚,发於腿、主宰於腰、形於手指,由脚而腿而腰。总须完整一气,向前退後乃能得机得势,有不得机得势处,身便散乱其病必於腰腿求之,上下前後皆然。凡此皆是。意不在外面,有上即有下,有前则有後,有左则有右,如意要向上即寓下意,若将物掀起即加以挫之之意;斯其根自断。乃坏之速,而无疑。虚实宜分清楚,一处有一处虚实。周身节节贯串,无令丝毫间断耳。

长拳者,如长江大海滔滔不绝也。掤、捋、挤、按、采、挒、肘、靠,此八卦也。进步、退步、左顾、右盼、中定,此五行也,『掤捋挤按』,即乾坤坎离四正方也。『采挒肘靠』,即巽震兑艮四斜角也。『进退顾盼定』,即金木水火土也。合之则为『十三势』也。
【原注云:此系武当山张三丰祖师遗论欲天下豪杰延年益寿不徒作技艺之末也】
【太极拳由张三丰所创此说法,始於武禹让,但据考证并非如此,故此文何人所作无法得知】

f-太极拳四字不传密诀 武禹襄
敷:敷者,运气於已身,敷布彼劲之上,使不得动也。
盖:盖者,以气盖彼来处也。
对:对者,以气对彼来处,认定准头而去也。
吞:吞者,以气全吞而入於化也。
此四字无形无声,非懂劲後,练到极精地位者,不能知全。是以气言,能直养其气而无害,使能施於四体,四体不言而喻矣。

g-太极拳解 武禹襄
身虽动,心贵静;气须敛,神宜舒。心为令,气为旗;神为主帅,身为驱使。刻刻留意,方有所得。先在心,后在身。在身,则不知手之舞之,足虽蹈之,所谓“一气呵成”、“舍己从人”、“引进落空”、“四两拨千斤”也须知:一动无有不动,一静无有不静。视动犹静,视静犹动。内固精神,外显安逸。须要从人,不要从己。从人则活,从己则滞。尚气者无力,养气者纯刚彼不动,己不动;彼微动,己以动。以己从人,务要知己,乃能随转随接;以己粘人,必须知人,乃能不后不先精神能提得起,则无滞重之虞;粘依能跟得灵,方见落空之妙。往复须分阴阳,进退须有转合。机由己发,力从人借。